I am a scientist. I declare it so proudly. But I think many people have a distorted conception of what a scientist is, and, frankly, what science itself is. Science is not truth, not a body of knowledge, and not a set of technologies. Science is a philosophy and a methodology that assists one in seeking the truth, or at least some approximation of the truth.
This musing comes about because I’ve lost count of the number of people sending me links to stories about Prahlad Jani (or “Mataji”), the yogic mystic who claims to have survived for decades without food and water, and who just recently submitted himself to a 10- or 15-day study (reports differ) by Indian physicians, under the auspices of the Indian military.
Now science allows us to observe and measure in a rigorous format the falling of an object from the sky to the ground. From these observations arise theories which are, one at a time, discarded as our methodology systematically allows us to discount them. The theory that remains is not truth, but merely the best approximation of truth, given the observations available up to that point, and must remain plastic and non-dogmatic as future observations compel us to refine our theories.
The story of Jani, then, is not one of science versus mysticism, though many seem eager to promote it as such. Rather, it is an opportunity to explore our motivations and impulses with respect to our evolving society’s relationship with both rationalism and mysticism, as we all seek some compromise between our spiritual and physical lives.
So let us parse the phenomenon of the Man Who Does Not Eat through the following filters: is it real, is he lying, are the scientists studying him lying, and so what?
Is It Real?
When I discussed Jani’s supposed ability to live without food and water with my physiotherapist, she exclaimed, “That’s impossible!”
She is correct. It is indeed impossible—according to our present paradigm of understanding. In fact, the entire science of biology is based upon the assumption that life is an energetic process that acts to combat the natural state of entropy that exists among all things. This anti-entropic process is made possible through regular injections of energy, i.e. the eating of food, which contains chemical energy locked within molecular bonds. By this conceptualization, to live without the regular ingestion of energy violates the Laws of Thermodynamics.
It has been proposed many times in history that an animal might be able to receive energetic sustenance from a source other than food. After all, plants convert solar energy into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. Some ocean floor unicellular creatures do a similar thing near lava eruptions, using the heat and light of the geothermal event to fuel their biology. Within the existing paradigm of understanding, then, one can conceive of a complex higher order animal, like a human, developing a similar trait, however improbable that might be.
Another yogi, Hira Ratan Manek, once claimed, essentially, to be able to photosynthesize. In fact, every few months stories about seemingly meta-human individuals pop up in the media. For example, in 2004, reputable news outlets reported on the Russian teenager Natalia Demkina, who apparently had x-ray vision.
Demkina has vanished from the news wires, and Manek now makes a living selling his “sun gazing” lectures, CDs, and DVDs.
Probably over a trillion people have walked the Earth since the rise of humanity on this world. The distribution of genetic variability is the crux of evolution, what allows our species to select from a vast menu of mutations in response to whatever environmental challenges may arise. This is the nature of natural selection.
Therefore, it is not only unsurprising, but indeed necessary, that extremes of biology be reflected within our diverse species.
For instance, the youngest human mother on record was Lina Medina, a Peruvian girl who, in 1938, gave birth to a healthy baby boy when she was only five years old. It is not typical, expected, or even desired for such an extreme genetic tendency toward early puberty to manifest itself, but given the size and breadth of our species, some outliers from the norm will occur.
An outlier, however, is different from a physical impossibility. To survive without eating, or more precisely without measurable energetic input, is called “inedia.” And inedia, according to our present paradigm of understanding, is impossible.
Inedia is nevertheless a popular claimed manifestation of this biological outlier phenomenon, particularly among Indians. Separate from the mostly Western movement called “Breatharianism,” Indian versions of inedia are typically associated with religion. Jani himself claims that a goddess blessed him as a child, allowing him to live solely on a magical nectar that flows from a hole in his palate. (I’m sure he meant this metaphorically, as physical examinations have revealed no such hole.)
It can be argued that a land uniquely beset simultaneously with deep, all-pervading religion, and brutal poverty and famine is the ideal breeding ground for religion-based claims of inedia. In the fat, wealthy West, claims of living without eating are received with incredulity and some mild curiosity. In a place where every rice grain counts, to thrive without food is to provide the best kind of hope.
Jainism is particularly well-suited for embracing claims of inedia. The ancient religion prescribes extreme non-violence as one of its central tenets, and features saints who eschewed eating in order to protect the “life force” of the food that would otherwise be consumed. Not surprisingly, both Jani and Manek are followers of Jainism, as is Sudhir Shah, the physician tasked by the Indian military with observing Jani’s extreme fast.
In the Indian “mystical” paradigm of understanding, then, inedia is not necessarily an impossibility. But which provides objective truth? The Western paradigm or the Indian mystical paradigm? For that matter, does objective truth really exist? It is an inconvenient truism, after all, that to assess “objective truth” requires applying criteria developed by and for one of the paradigms (usually the scientific one) to the detriment of the other paradigm.
Is He Lying?
Obviously, we cannot know what lies in the heart of another man. But approaching the phenomenon from the Western “scientific” paradigm, we must conclude that the claims of inedia are false, regardless of the data presented, since we have already concluded that inedia is impossible.
At the time of the writing of this article, famed quack-debunker and skeptic James Randi had not yet spoken on the recent news about Prahlad Jani. But based on his comments about the photosynthesizing yogi, I think it’s safe to assume Randi would call Jani a deliberate liar and faker.
I, on the other hand, am not so distrustful. Assuming that the inedia phenomenon is not real (and I will give you my conclusions later), it does not necessarily follow that Jani is intentionally fabricating his life story.
Ever meet a vegetarian who gives you a hard time about your hamburger, but who then goes ahead and orders a plate of fish and chips? She is not necessarily a hypocrite, but simply defines “vegetarian” a bit differently than you do: fish don’t count, since they’re a kind of moving vegetable. It’s an issue of semantics.
My very first yoga teacher was, frankly, a nut who would preach endlessly about the fall of Atlantis, the Pyramids, aliens, and about the benefits of his extreme fasts, denying himself food for days to “purge the body and the soul.” During one of these fasts, I found him sipping from a very large tankard of fresh fruit juice.
“Oh this doesn’t count,” he said. “This isn’t food.”
Similarly, some have claimed that Jani has lived for decades without ingesting a drop of water. But he gargles daily with water. He may or may not spit most of it out, but it’s pretty much guaranteed that he’s ingesting or at least absorbing some of it. Frankly, we don’t know how he defines food, ingestion, eating, drinking, or fasting. This is not a failing on his part, but on the part of those describing and reporting on his phenomenon.
Are The Investigators Lying?
And now we get to the science portion of today’s adventure. You can access a PowerPoint presentation by Dr. Sudhir Shah, the leader of the investigation on Jani, summarizing the results of the study, on Shah’s website.
By all accounts, Shah is an intelligent, respectable and well- trained neurologist with the best of intentions.
The following comment is not directed to him or about him, but rather is for the consumption of the general population. Ready? Here it comes: medical doctors are not scientists. Read that again and remember it, because it will serve you well in life.
I have lost track of the number of times I’ve had to rebut very unscientific comments made by physicians about the nature of scientific research. Medical doctors employ the products of science, its technologies and conclusions, in their everyday practices. A good medical school will have also taught its graduates basic epidemiology and the foundations of research, but nothing very advanced. Having lectured in a few respectable medical schools, I must conclude that medical schools do not produce scientists. That is not their goal, and that is not what society needs them for. Medical schools produce practitioners of medical knowledge.
Of course, there are many physicians who are also excellent scientists. But they have taken the time to acquire the necessary skills to do so at an acceptable level. My point is that one should always be sceptical of when a non-specialist makes a conclusive statement about something in which he or she is not an expert.
Thus, unless the expertise to design a rigorous, testable scenario is demonstrated, I am not sanguine about Shah’s team’s ability to produce convincing data regarding Jani, given that their methodology has not been well described in any of their released missives.
Even on its surface, there are questions of accountability and bias that go unaddressed. Shah’s eagerness to “detect an effect,” as we say in my profession, is evidenced on his website, where he expounds the virtues of Jain philosophies. This in and of itself is certainly not a failing, but does need to be weighed. It is made worse by the revelation that India’s leading debunker of extraordinary paranormal claims, Sanal Edmaruku, was prohibited from observing Shah’s study of Jani. Edmaruku made the following comments in London’s Daily Mail: “I asked to be allowed to send an independent team to survey the room where this test is taking place, but I was repeatedly turned down…”
“…Dr. Shah has been in charge of three similar investigations over the past ten years, and he has never allowed independent verification.”
This is not the path of rigorous science. Let us not jump to the conclusion that Shah is intentionally skewing his data. Rather, I would accept that his personal drive to observe evidence of inedia firsthand may have biased his development of a suitable protocol for proper testing of Jani’s claims.
There are indeed methodological flaws implicit in Shah’s attempts to test Jani’s claims of inedia, though these are difficult to gauge since I can find no thorough description of the protocols applied or the degree to which they were adhered. I will not describe those flaws in this space, since the details are ultimately irrelevant to the lessons that Jani’s phenomenon represents.
Suffice it to say that, to the extent that Shah’s methodology has been disclosed, the resulting observations fall well short of providing convincing evidence for the confirmation of Jani’s claims of inedia, within the rigorous, controlled and repeatable dictates of Western science.
To be completely honest, I do not feel qualified to pronounce whether or not inedia is a real phenomenon. I further do not feel qualified to pronounce whether or not Prahlad Jani is a genuine example of true inedia, assuming it is indeed a real phenomenon. But I am quite confident in pronouncing that Shah’s study of Prahlad Jani, making so much news everywhere, does not provide anything resembling convincing evidence of the veracity of Jani’s claims.
As a representative of the paradigm of Western science—true Western science, the one that seeks the truth, not the one that decries apostates—I adhere to the practice that extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. Inedia is indeed an extraordinary claim. Shah’s study is not only not extraordinary evidence, it isn’t even passable ordinary evidence.
But to me the more interesting question is: what if it was? What if Shah had adhered to the most stringent and rigorous of scientific protocols? What if he’d used the finest tools in the arsenal of Western science and managed to produce viable evidence that Jani’s claims were defensible? What then?
As I noted, inedia is impossible according to the present paradigm of understanding. But this is not the first time that the present paradigm has been challenged. And history has shown that it can be successfully challenged.
When Einstein first introduced General Relativity to the world, it was met in some orthodox circles with cries of voodoo. After some extraordinary bits of evidence, relativity was absorbed into mainstream physics dogma, and is today considered one of the pillars of mainstream advanced science.
A similar thing happened when a handful of clever European physicists developed the theory of quantum mechanics, whose tenets were so fantastical that under the existing paradigm of understanding—that of Newtonian physics—they were deemed impossible. Decades of extraordinary evidence later, quantum mechanics now lies at the heart of much of what we in Western science consider the truth of reality.
Science does not know truth. Science approximates truth. With each discovery, test and observation, that approximation becomes more refined. Skepticism is healthy. The vaunted scientific method has as its engine the steam of skepticism. But when that method is satisfied, the challenge of incorporating new knowledge into the prevalent paradigm of understanding becomes a human one. It is based more on emotion, values, prejudice and ego than on the rigours of philosophy.
And so I ask again: what if Shah had done everything right, and, according to our present models of scientific rigour, presented real evidence of inedia? Do we as a culture have the maturity and humility to re-examine our assumptions about the world?
Raywat Deonandan is an Epidemiologist and Assistant Professor in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Ottawa.