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Back To The Future At School

Can schools safely reopen though the pandemic shows little sign of waning and educators stumble towards the first day of school in the absence of a clear cut strategy?

The answer is uncertain.

In early July President Trump demanded that schools “open quickly, beautifully, in the fall” for normal, in-person instruction.

The CDC responded with guidelines instructing school districts to build supportive community infrastructures to counter the onslaught of COVID-19 as schools reopened. They urged school officials to implement hygiene and social distancing practices and develop ‘proactive’ plans with health departments, parents and caregivers to deal with potential outbreaks.

A snapshot of the ‘new normal’ for K-12 schools.

Keeping active kindergartners apart; keeping their masks on; fewer students on school buses; limited class sizes; keeping staff safe; sanitizing; PPE; social distancing; online SATs; remote learning; iPads or computers for all.

For many schools, adjusting to the new normal would be a complicated and expensive endeavor.

School systems which struggled with pandemic restrictions would face even greater logistical and financial burdens meeting the new CDC requirements, leaving them with no other option than to continue with virtual classes moving forward.

President Trump tweeted his displeasure at the “very tough and expensive guidelines for opening schools,” and, under pressure, the CDC retracted its message, effectively relinquishing the decision making to school administrators. At the behest of the White House, the CDC emphasized the “importance of reopening America’s schools this fall,” and warned that extended school closures would “be harmful to children.”

This mixed messaging starkly reflects the reality that the CDC’s mission to reopen schools is at odds with the Trump administration’s intent to open at all odds, said Dan Domenech, Executive Director of the School Superintendents Association (AASA).

The Cost of Reopening

What is certain however, is that a safe return to in-person school comes with a hefty price tag – a whopping 200 billion dollars or more, or about $490 per K-12 student. At a panel discussion on how to safely reopen schools hosted by Ethnic Media Services on July 31, Domenech explained that the costs would cover laptops for students and an array of preventive measures that include sanitizers, masks, PPE and safe busing, before schools could consider opening their doors to staff and students. The expense would place an unprecedented financial burden on overstretched school district budgets in the next academic year.

So, a safe reopening would need a huge injection of federal funds (that the Council of Chief State School Officers projected would cost between $158.1 billion and $244.6 billion,) but the government is threatening to cut funds for schools that don’t fully reopen.

Many school districts cannot afford the expense, so policymakers at state and local levels are choosing to wait before making a decision on whether to reopen schools, based on assessments of COVID-19 threats in their region.

Is it safe to go back to school?

In a press briefing, the White House pushed the idea that the greater risk right now is to children’s learning, rather than to their health and wellbeing, announcing that, “We don’t think our children should be locked up at home with devastating consequences when it’s perfectly safe for them to go to school.”

Till recently, the common belief was that young children were not affected by COVID-19 and were unlikely to spread the virus. In fact the CDC reiterated that children pose no risks, stating that, “The best available evidence from countries that have opened schools indicates that COVID-19 poses low risks to school-aged children, at least in areas with low community transmission, and suggests that children are unlikely to be major drivers of the spread of the virus.”

However, new research from a pediatric hospital in Chicago that published its findings in JAMA, indicates that children carry high levels of the virus in their upper respiratory tracks and may efficiently spread infection by sneezing, coughing or shouting.

“In several countries where schools that have opened prematurely, such as Israel, we have seen a rise in cases,” said Pedro Noguera, Dean, USC Rossier School of Education.

As findings like these make parents and educators uncertain about reopening schools in a pandemic, it may be prudent for school districts to first assess the threat of COVID-19 infections in their area before making plans to send children back to school, suggested by Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease expert, in recent interviews with PBS and the Washington Post.

Inequities in K-12 Education

As schools juggle in-person classes versus online learning and hybrid models, some wealthy families are resolving their uncertainty by creating private learning pods or ‘micro-schools,’ with hired tutors to educate their children. It’s an arrangement that reflects the inequities experienced by less privileged students from special needs, disadvantaged and low income backgrounds. Without tutors or pods, and limited access to internet and laptops, these children are likely to fall further behind and “experience tremendous learning loss,” noted Noguera.

The current education crisis stems froma  lack of leadership, said Noguera, adding that “The real questions facing the US is when will leadership emerge that can provide the guidance that schools need on how to manage instruction…safely … and how to reopen appropriately, in a manner that does not place lives at risk.” He called on local and community leaders to step up in the interim. It will be up to local and community leaders to create innovative ways to deliver education and support children and families, in the short term, said Noguera.

Moving forward into the future will be challenging for schools because the scope of funding required to make changes is not forthcoming from the federal purse . Without adequate funding for health and safety measures in place, Noguera stated that school districts will have to contend with, for example, teacher unions who recently announced they will go on strike over unsafe conditions.

Eleven million children do not have the laptops they need for remote learning, said Domenech. So, even though technology offers valuable learning platforms, it can be a double edged sword, when teachers are ill prepared to use it effectively and students who have little or no access to technology lose out on their learning.

Schools will have to show teachers how to close the “digital divide,” advised Noguera, by training them “to use the technology to deliver meaningful instruction to kids.” But, whatever devices students use for learning, without access to reliable Internet and Wi-Fi, low income and disadvantaged students would face inequities of digital access, warned USC Professor Shaun R. Harper. In LA, school districts have invested in making screens and hotspots available within communities so children can access learning; but children in rural areas have even less connection and risk being left behind.

Noguera suggested that instead of trying to adapt curricula to cell phones, another option would be to go back to “old school approaches to education” using pencil and paper, adding that “they worked before technology, and could work again.”

“For now, whether our education looks like mini learning pods, pandemic pods, micro schools, or collaborative tutoring with college students….that’s still going to provide inequity in our educational system.” cautioned Eddie Valero, Supervisor for District 4, Tulare County Board of Supervisors. He was referring to economist Emily Oster’s prediction that clusters of home schooling families are going to happen everywhere regardless, and “that will create an economic divide.” 

Re-envisioning the future of schooling

Panelists offered several perspectives on when and how schools should reopen.

In working with school superintendents on reopening of schools based on CDC guidelines, said Domenech, the future could feature one of three options – the popular hybrid model, with students on weekly shifts between online learning and in-person classes seated 6 feet apart, total remote learning, or returning to school full-time as before.

However, the continuing rise in infections across the country means that most schools may open remotely. It may be possible for students to return to school only in areas where the rate of infection is below 5%, advised Noguera, suggesting that less risky, outdoor learning may be one way to address the problem. However, places experiencing a surge in cases such as the Imperial Valley in southern California, will have “to rely on community organizations like non-profits to support families and deliver education to children in concert with the school district,” he said.

Noguera’s view was echoed by Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, USC Associate Professor at the Brain and Creativity Institute and Rossier School of Education, who suggested tapping into the “huge cohort of college-ready high school graduates” and using their skills as a resource for tutoring younger students. Engaging young people as a ‘brigade  of community tutors” could help solve the shortage of people in teaching and learning, and give them a sense of purpose,” said Yang.

Professor Harper, who leads the USC Race and Equity Center warned that ‘raceless’ reopening policies from school districts  would “yield racially disparate outcomes”. He suggested that more consultation with communities of color was needed to “racialize input” into the K-12 reopening strategy. That would involve considerations like providing proper PPE, testing and contact tracing for essential workers in schools who are more likely to be employees of color and are disproportionately exposed to infection, as well as trauma and grief support  for staff and students of color, who are more likely to have experienced loss of a family or community member to the virus.

The panelists called on the private sector, specifically high tech companies and philanthropists, to step up and help avert the crisis.

Big tech firms like Amazon said Noguera, which have accumulated huge profits during the pandemic, have a responsibility to assist.

Harper described this timeframe as an opportunity for philanthropists and foundations who want to close racial equity gaps by helping finance “accessibility to learning pods for poorer students who cannot afford it.” There is also a role, he suggested, for nonprofits, youth organizations and college access providers to add to their agendas and recreate pod-like experiences for disadvantaged youth during the pandemic.

Schools are relying on Congress to pass funding that will get K-12 education back on track safely, and Domenech predicts that the majority of schools in America will start the school year with remote learning because, ‘in order to bring any children into school, dollars will be required.”

Valero closed out the discussion by inviting policymakers to re-envision what school should look like for the future by thinking “in creative ways that disrupt our everyday normalcy for something different,” but he urged, “honestly it begins with access, opportunity and fairness for all students.”

“We need to model our classrooms with our most struggling students in mind.”

Meera Kymal is a contributing editor at India Currents 

Image by Katherine Ab from Pixabay; Image by Bob Dmyt from Pixabay

An All-Inclusive Prom

Flowers adorned the Foothill Presbyterian Church’s Fellowship Hall as the sun began to set. Girls and boys of all ages and abilities were dressed in their finest, the sound of their laughter uniting everyone. Graced with flower crowns and boutineers, these kids were ready to partake in a trademark high school tradition: InFUSE’s first annual all-inclusive prom! 

InFUSE, a nonprofit organization, is the brainchild of a group of friends, namely Mrs. Selvi Pragasam, Mrs. Lavanya Gopal, and their respective families, who want to create a more inclusive environment for neurodiverse children and young adults. Since April 2017, InFUSE has been providing personalized educational pathways and activities for the neurodiverse community via an afterschool program in order to uncover each student’s unique strengths and abilities. InFUSE also offers bhajan classes and a peer interaction dance program. Founders Mrs. Selvi and Mrs. Lavanya are also passionate about empowering the next generation with the tools they need to make an impact on their community. 

As a volunteer at InFUSE, I am supposed to be teaching the students, but on many days, I feel like I am the one getting taught by all of the inspiring students. As humans, we are so quick to claim that we are stressed or something is too hard and that our efforts are futile, but spending just a few minutes with our friends at InFUSE is enough to show us what true persistence is and how to live life to its fullest. InFUSE truly has its doors open for everybody, embodying the saying – stronger together. 

InFUSE’s First All-inclusive prom 

The attendees of the all-inclusive prom having a dance party
The attendees of the all-inclusive prom having a dance party

As a junior in high school, I had attended prom with my friends a couple of months prior to the all-inclusive prom (held on May 18th 2019). It was there that I realized that although prom is considered a rite-of-passage for high schoolers, there are many who cannot experience this event. For many neurodiverse students, loud music, lights, and a crowded atmosphere can make prom an anxiety-inducing experience When talking to the parents of InFUSE students, many voiced similar concerns regarding their high school’s prom. In order to provide a solution to this problem in our community, along with Mrs. Selvi, Mrs. Lavanya, and volunteer Nithika Karthikeyan, I led efforts to coordinate an all-inclusive prom catering to both the neurotypical and neurodiversity communities in the Bay Area. 

Held at Foothill Presbyterian Church’s Fellowship Hall, the prom had a theme of an enchanted forest while all kids came dressed as their favorite princes and princesses. There was a photobooth, talent show, and  a parade for the attendees to show off their outfits. Parents pitched in to provide a scrumptious, multicultural potluck while a local band, Gifted Connections played the night away. Paintings by the students of InFUSE were showcased in an art display as well. The goal of this event was to recreate the trademark high school tradition of prom in a way where kids of all ages and abilities could participate and have fun. 

Mrs. Haritha, a mother of one of the kids who attended InFUSE’s prom, stated, “Thanks so much Selvi, Lavanya, and the other volunteers for a fantastic event. Namit did not even know what a prom is. He got to experience it yesterday. Thank you so much for filling so many kids’ hearts with happiness.” 

Vaibhav Gopal, Mrs. Lavanya Gopal’s son and a highschool senior from the neurodiverse community, said, “The InFuse prom was a great and lovely event. People of all ages could come and enjoy the entertainment and delicious food. It made me feel that I belonged to the group and I enjoyed the enchanted evening.” 

InFUSE is located at 2847 S.White Rd. Suite #209, San Jose, CA 95148. You can contact us infuseteam.org or by calling 1(669)223-1644. Middle schoolers and high schoolers interested in volunteering can contact us directly. 

Simrithaa Karunakaran is a rising senior at Evergreen Valley High School. Along with being an avid volunteer at InFUSE, she runs a nonprofit organization (Hand-In-Hand Art), which provides art lessons to the neurodiverse community. In her free time, Simrithaa can be found with her nose buried in a book, enjoying a good movie, or traveling with her family.
If readers want to get involved, they visit InFUSE’s website at: https://www.infuseteam.org